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Structured Water Benefits Research

Study: Effect of Antioxidant Water on the Bioactivities of Cells

Abstract: "It has been reported that water at the interface of a hydrophilic thin film forms an exclusion zone, which has a higher density than ordinary water. A similar phenomenon was observed for a hydrated hydrophilic ceramic powder, and water turns into a three-dimensional cell-like structure composed of high density water and low density water. This structured water appears to have a stimulative effect on plant growth. This report outlines our study of antioxidant properties of this structured water and its effect on cell bioactivities. Culturing media which were prepared utilizing this antioxidant structured water promoted the viability of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells by up to three times. The same tendency was observed for other cells including IEC-6, C2C12, and 3T3-L1. Also, the cytokine expression of the splenocytes taken from a mouse spleen increased in the same manner. The water also appears to suppress the viability of cancer cell, MCF-7. These results strongly suggest that the structured water helps the activities of normal cells while suppressing those of malignant cells."

Study: Structured Water Layers Adjacent to Biological Membranes

Abstract: "Water amid the restricted space of crowded biological macromolecules and at membrane interfaces is essential for cell function, though the structure and function of this “biological water” itself remains poorly defined. The force required to remove strongly bound water is referred to as the hydration force and due to its widespread importance, it has been studied in numerous systems. Here, by using a highly sensitive dynamic atomic force microscope technique in conjunction with a carbon nanotube probe, we reveal a hydration force with an oscillatory profile that reflects the removal of up to five structured water layers from between the probe and biological membrane surface. Further, we find that the hydration force can be modified by changing the membrane fluidity. For 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine gel (Lβ) phase bilayers, each oscillation in the force profile indicates the force required to displace a single layer of water molecules from between the probe and bilayer. In contrast, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine fluid (Lα) phase bilayers at 60°C and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine fluid (Lα) phase bilayers at 24°C seriously disrupt the molecular ordering of the water and result predominantly in a monotonic force profile."

Study: Effect of Health-Promoting Agents on Exclusion-Zone Size [Note: EZ water is another name for structured water]

Abstract: "It is now well-confirmed that hydrophilic surfaces including those within the cell generate structural changes in water. This interfacial water is ordered and acquires features different from the bulk. Amongst those features is the exclusion of colloidal and molecular solutes from extensive regions next to the hydrophilic surface, thereby earning it the label of “exclusion zone” (EZ) water. The transition of ordered EZ water to bulk serves as an important trigger of many cellular physiological functions, and in turn cellular health. We tested physiological doses of half a dozen agents generally identified to restore or build health on the extent to which they build EZs. All agents known to enhance biological function resulted in EZ expansion. On the other hand, the weed killer, glyphosate, considerably diminished EZ size. While the expansion effect of the health-promoting agents was observed over a wide range of concentrations, excessive doses ultimately reduced EZ size. We hypothesize that EZ buildup may be a mechanistic feature underlying many health-promoting agents, while agents that impair health may act by diminishing the amount of EZ water"

Total and structured water in cancer: an NMR experimental study of serum and tissues in DMBA-induced OF1 mice

Abstract: Total water and structured water (fraction of total water which remains unfrozen below the transition point from the semisolid to solid state) were characterized by 1H NMR relaxometry in the sera and tissues of 3 groups of 30 female mice (C, H and L) receiving a single administration of DMBA and different diets. Mice given the diet H, containing the highest proportion of saturated fatty acids and processed starch, and the lowest phytochemicals content, presented the highest tumor incidence (lymphoma). This allowed 3 subgroups to be defined: subnormal (SN), small (T+) and large tumor (T++). Spin-lattice relaxation times of total water (Tlobs) in the sera and tissues did not significantly differ between C, H and L groups, and SN, T+ and T++ subgroups. In T+ mice, a decrease in the relative amount of structured water was noticed in the serum, liver and heart, while changes in the temperature dependence of the Tl of structured water (Tlsw) were observed between -21 degrees C and -42 degrees C. These results suggest a moderate increase in the rotational mobility of structured water molecules in the serum and the heart, and a pronounced decrease in the liver. Likewise, the modification of the Tlsvv temperature dependence curve's shape tends to confirm the existence of important conformational changes in the macromolecular assemblies, which markedly affect the properties of structured water, especially in the earliest stage of cancer development.

Aquaporin research

Study: Aquaporin in kidney cells

Abstract: "The discovery of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) answered the long-standing biophysical question of how water specifically crosses biological membranes. In the kidney, at least seven aquaporins are expressed at distinct sites. AQP1 is extremely abundant in the proximal tubule and descending thin limb and is essential for urinary concentration. AQP2 is exclusively expressed in the principal cells of the connecting tubule and collecting duct and is the predominant vasopressin-regulated water channel. AQP3 and AQP4 are both present in the basolateral plasma membrane of collecting duct principal cells and represent exit pathways for water reabsorbed apically via AQP2. Studies in patients and transgenic mice have demonstrated that both AQP2 and AQP3 are essential for urinary concentration. Three additional aquaporins are present in the kidney. AQP6 is present in intracellular vesicles in collecting duct intercalated cells, and AQP8 is present intracellularly at low abundance in proximal tubules and collecting duct principal cells, but the physiological function of these two channels remains undefined. AQP7 is abundant in the brush border of proximal tubule cells and is likely to be involved in proximal tubule water reabsorption. Body water balance is tightly regulated by vasopressin, and multiple studies now have underscored the essential roles of AQP2 in this. Vasopressin regulates acutely the water permeability of the kidney collecting duct by trafficking of AQP2 from intracellular vesicles to the apical plasma membrane. The long-term adaptational changes in body water balance are controlled in part by regulated changes in AQP2 and AQP3 expression levels. Lack of functional AQP2 is seen in primary forms of diabetes insipidus, and reduced expression and targeting are seen in several diseases associated with urinary concentrating defects such as acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, postobstructive polyuria, as well as acute and chronic renal failure. In contrast, in conditions with water retention such as severe congestive heart failure, pregnancy, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, both AQP2 expression levels and apical plasma membrane targetting are increased, suggesting a role for AQP2 in the development of water retention. Continued analysis of the aquaporins is providing detailed molecular insight into the fundamental physiology and pathophysiology of water balance and water balance disorders."

Study: Aquaporin over-express in skin cancer cells

Abstract: "Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is one of the aquaglyceroporins, which is expressed in the basolateral layer of the skin membrane. Studies have reported that human skin squamous cell carcinoma overexpresses AQP3 and inhibition of its function may alleviate skin tumorigenesis. In the present study, we have applied a virtual screening method that encompasses filters for physicochemical properties and molecular docking to select potential hit compounds that bind to the Aquaporin-3 protein. Based on molecular docking results, the top 20 hit compounds were analyzed for stability in the binding pocket using unconstrained molecular dynamics simulations and further evaluated for binding free energy. Furthermore, examined the ligand-unbinding pathway of the inhibitor from its bound form to explore possible routes for inhibitor approach to the ligand-binding site. With a good docking score, stability in the binding pocket, and free energy of binding, these hit compounds can be developed as Aquaporin-3 inhibitors in the near future."

Study: Challenges and achievements in the therapeutic modulation of aquaporin functionality

Abstract: "Aquaporin (AQP) water and solute channels have basic physiological functions throughout the human body. AQP-facilitated water permeability across cell membranes is required for rapid reabsorption of water from pre-urine in the kidneys and for sustained near isosmolar water fluxes e.g. in the brain, eyes, inner ear, and lungs. Cellular water permeability is further connected to cell motility. AQPs of the aquaglyceroporin subfamily are necessary for lipid degradation in adipocytes and glycerol uptake into the liver, as well as for skin moistening. Modulation of AQP function is desirable in several pathophysiological situations, such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, Sjögren's syndrome, Menière's disease, heart failure, or tumors to name a few. Attempts to design or to find effective small molecule AQP inhibitors have yielded only a few hits. Challenges reside in the high copy number of AQP proteins in the cell membranes, and spatial restrictions in the protein structure. This review gives an overview on selected physiological and pathophysiological conditions in which modulation of AQP functions appears beneficial and discusses first achievements in the search of drug-like AQP inhibitors."

Research: AQP and incontinence through hormonal changes post menopause (study 1052)

Abstract: 

AQP incontinence.PNG
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